Approach to value Worldviews Types of values Scale Conflict Skills & effort
Value derives from the effects of ecosystem services on human health. Mostly western worldviews Anthropocentric (instrumental and relational) No specifications No specifications Specialized technical knowledge
Costs & effort can variate according to the methodology

Health assessments comprise methods valuing the effects of ecosystem services on human health. Different domains of health and of biodiversity – human health linkages to be considered in this regard comprise nutrition, infectious disease, non-communicable disease and mental health. Depending on what type of health domain is relevant for the purpose of valuation, a suit of tools and methods from diverse disciplinary backgrounds can be utilized.

Health valuation methods are particularly suitable to assess how changes in nature affect nature’s benefits to people’s quality of life. These health metrics are at the core of human well-being and are generally considered to be a universal human right. Nearly all health values are anthropocentric by nature.

Although there have been efforts to translate health research and practice into systems usable and understandable by people, much of health valuation centres on a Western approach and worldview. Approaches to health valuation can also distinguish expert-centred and person-centred approaches to quality of life. Participatory approaches and social engagement are nearly always integrated into health methods because this field was designed to serve the public interest. Also, broader social contexts and issues of scale are nearly always included, specifically relevant to methodological approaches developed by social epidemiologists.

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Examples of tools