Within the scope outlined in the generic scoping report for the regional and subregional assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services, (decision IPBES-3/1, annex III), the key policy‑relevant questions concern options and opportunities with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services and their role for human well-being. The assessment will examine the opportunities for sectoral policies and policy instruments; managing production, consumption and economic development; and ecological infrastructures and ecological technologies. It will explore opportunities to promote food security, economic development and equality while avoiding land and aquatic degradation and conserving cultural landscapes. The Europe and Central Asia assessment will focus in particular on the following questions:

  1. How can ecosystems that provide ecosystem services, such as those underpinning ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change and nature-based solutions to sustainable development, be protected through investments, regulations and management regimes for terrestrial, freshwater, coastal and marine systems?
  2. What are the effects of production, consumption and economic development on biodiversity and ecosystem services and their contribution to human wellbeing? Major links with other regions will be assessed;
  3.  How can sectoral policies and new policy instruments make use of opportunities arising from the contribution of biodiversity and ecosystem services to human well-being?

For the purpose of the regional assessment, three subregions have been identified that include the following countries and territories, including marine and coastal areas:

Subregions

Countries and territories within the Europe and Central Asia region

Central and Western Europe

Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey (Group of Central European countries)

Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Group of Western European countries)

Eastern Europe

Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine

Central Asia

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan