Within the scope outlined in the generic scoping report for the regional and subregional assessment of biodiversity and ecosystem services (decision IPBES-3/1, annex III), particular challenges found across the Asia-Pacific region include climate change (particularly sea-level rise, increased intensity of extreme storm events, ocean acidification and glacier retreat), population growth, poverty, human consumption of natural resources, land degradation, deforestation, invasive alien species, the impact of trade (including the illegal trade in wildlife and non-timber forest products), rapid urbanization, coastal pollution, poor governance of natural resources and the impact of altered fire regimes. These factors, together with others that have an impact on biodiversity and ecosystem services, will be considered in the report. There are also positive trends, such as an increase in awareness, forest cover and protected areas and a reduction in the region’s carbon footprint. Issues specific to particular Asia-Pacific subregions will also be addressed, for example the interplay between food, water and energy security; biodiversity and livelihoods; waste management; and cooperative management of critical ecosystems shared by more than one country.

The assessment will include countries and territories in five subregions as follows:

Subregions

Countries and territories

Oceania

Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), Nauru, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. Pacific island territories of Cook Islands, New Caledonia, American Samoa,a Tokelau,a French Polynesia,a Niue,a Guam,a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Pitcairn Islanda and Wallis and Futuna.a Oceanic and sub-Antarctic islands in the Pacific region (or Pacific and Indian Ocean regions)

South-East Asia

Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Viet Nam

North-East Asia

China, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia and Republic of Korea

South Asia

Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

Western Asia

Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen (Arabian peninsula); Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, State of Palestine and Syrian Arab Republic (Mashreq)

a. Overseas territory.