Biodiversity-relevant taxes, charges and fees are types of policy instruments that can be used to promote the sustainable use of biodiversity. Examples include taxes and charges on pesticides, fertilisers and other sources of NOx and CO2 emissions, natural resource extraction, and entrance fees to natural parks.

Examples of these instruments are provided in Chapter 3 of Scaling Up Finance Mechanisms for Biodiversity (OECD, 2013). The OECD database on Policy Instruments for the Environment (PINE) provides an inventory of biodiversity-relevant taxes, charges and fees that are in force in a number of countries. For further information on the PINE database, see the brochure


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OECD Environment Directorate