A critical evaluation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the region. It evaluates the contributions of biodiversity and ecosystem services as well as major trends in these. Focus is given to different subregions, their distinct biomes, cultures and socio-economic differences. It addresses major pressures such as agricultural intensification, natural resource extraction, pollution, invasive alien species, and climate change. It discusses options to reduce biodiversity loss. Its aim is to help policy-makers value and protect nature and its benefits to people. The biodiversity in the region is unique but in continuous strong decline, despite sustainability policies. Nature’s contributions to people are not evenly experienced in the region, and are under threat due to biodiversity loss.


IPBES critically evaluates the state of knowledge on the interactions between human societies and the natural world. An IPBES assessment is initiated by the Plenary, and performed by independent experts from multiple disciplines who contribute their time freely. The undertaking of the assessment was approved by the Plenary at its third meeting with the approval of the scoping report (Decision IPBES-3/1).

Peer review: 

The first and second order drafts of the assessment report and the summary for policy makers are subject to review from external peer reviewers. Comments are made on the accuracy and completeness of the scientific/technical/socio-economic content and the overall scientific/technical/socio-economic balance of the drafts. The aim of the peer reviewer to is to provide authors with constructive feedback that will help in preparing the assessment of the highest quality.

Temporal coverage of the assessment: 
Thursday, 1 January, 2015 to Monday, 1 January, 2018
Contact details
Contact Name: 
IPBES Secretariat