SDG_Logos: 

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting

The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) provides a framework for measuring the links between the environment and economy.

The SEEA consists of two parts. The SEEA Central Framework (SEEA CF) was adopted by the UN Statistical Commission as the first international standard for environmental-economic accounting in 2012. The Central Framework looks at individual environmental assets, such as water, forests and fisheries resources, and how they are extracted from the environment, used within the economy, and returned to the environment as air, water, and waste.

Multi-scale integrated models of ecosystem services (MIMES)

MIMES is an ecosystem-based management tool. It integrates georeferenced datasets, with diverse information sources on human and natural systems to create systems models. These systems models assess the value of ecosystem services at different spatial levels under different future scenarios. These are bespoke models for particular cases.

The MIMES approach has been applied in New Zealand and Massachusetts. It is also under development for use by the Ministry of Fisheries in Cambodia in managing the Tonle Sap Lake. 

Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST)

A suite of open-source software models to map and value ecosystem services. These are GIS-based spatial models that quantitatively analyse spatial changes in ecosystem services. They can be used to assess alternative management options by measuring the trade-offs.

Using maps as information sources and producing maps as outputs, they return results in either biophysical or economic terms. The models are based on production functions that define how changes in an ecosystem’s structure and function affects the flows and values of ecosystem services across a land- or a seascape.