System of Environmental-Economic Accounting

The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) provides a framework for measuring the links between the environment and economy.

The SEEA consists of two parts. The SEEA Central Framework (SEEA CF) was adopted by the UN Statistical Commission as the first international standard for environmental-economic accounting in 2012. The Central Framework looks at individual environmental assets, such as water, forests and fisheries resources, and how they are extracted from the environment, used within the economy, and returned to the environment as air, water, and waste.


The Rothamsted carbon model (RothC) is a model to assess soil matter turnover, which can indirectly indicate the state of degradation. It is a point-scale model and can be extrapolated to large spatial extents using remote sensing and GIS approaches. RothC is a model for the turnover of organic carbon in topsoil that allows for the effects of soil type, temperature, soil moisture and plant cover.


CENTURY is a general model of plant-soil nutrient cycling which has been used to simulate carbon and nutrient dynamics for different types of ecosystems. It can be used to assess soil matter turnover, which can indicate the state of degradation. CENTURY is composed of a soil organic matter/decomposition submodel, a water budget model, a grassland/crop submodel, a forest production submodel, and management and events scheduling functions. It computes the flow of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur through the model's compartments.