The Guidelines Access and Benefit Sharing in Research Projects are result of the GEF Project “In situ/On farm Conservation and Use of Agricultural Biodiversity (Horticultural Crops and Wild Fruit Species) in Central Asia implemented by UNEP-GEF and coordinated by Bioversity International. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide research institutions and decision makers with different agreements that can help them in their relations of access and benefit sharing, in light of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the recently adopted Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. In particular, they are aimed to reinforce conservation of crop varieties and wild fruit species, to protect farmers’ rights, and to explore ways through which the benefits derived from the use of genetic resources can be shared with the farmers that conserve them in situ through enhancing a safe, transparent and facilitated access and exchange. These guidelines describe the context in which the agreements are implemented, provide for information related to their main content and applicable provisions and include models of agreements to be used on a voluntary basis and adapted to particular conditions. The primary technical audience for these guidelines are researchers working with crop genetic resources and related traditional knowledge and those employed in institutes and executive agencies that implement genetic resources related policies and laws. These guidelines will also be a valuable resource for authorities involved in legislative processes on the matter and for local populations who depend on agrobiodiversity for their livelihoods.