This linked land-sea modeling framework helps assess the relative influence of terrestrial and marine drivers on coral reef communities. It links land cover/use to coral reefs through analyzing nutrient-enriched groundwater flux. Based on climate, groundwater recharge and recharge nutrient concentration data, groundwater flow and nutrient flux discharging at the coast are modeled. The model was developed for two ahupua’a, or traditional ridge-to-reef management systems, in Hawaii.
Social learning, innovation and adaptive governance
These tools aim to improve responsiveness, risk management and overall performance of the policy process while identifying opportunities to promote social learning and strengthening links and feedback mechanisms across elements and activities. E.g. collaborative networks, methodologies relating to adaptive governance.
The rapid forest assessment (RFA) approach is a collaborative natural resource management strategy to monitor forests by engaging stakeholders and citizen scientists in data collection. The RFA approach was designed to simplify the process of forest monitoring, allowing for wider geographic and temporal data collection while reducing the resources required for adaptive land management projects. RFA programs also educate stakeholders and citizens on issues related to forest management and restoration.
A review of coastal management approaches to support the integration of ecological and human community planning for climate change
This review describes the use of natural infrastructure in tidal marsh, beach and barrier island, mangrove, and biogenic reef habitats along the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts of the United States. The term natural infrastructure refers to planned networks of natural lands that conserve or enhance ecosystem values and services (see Ozment et al., 2015). The benefits, opportunities, and challenges of implementing natural infrastructure in a coastal zone are compared to those of grey and hybrid infrastructure.
The Ecosystem Service Assessment Support Tool (ESAST) has been designed to provide guidance to users who are new to ecosystem services and need assistance in designing an effective assessment process. It can also assist experienced users in providing detailed information about different concepts, methodologies and links to case study information, or give structured access to information maintained within and outside of Oppla (www.oppla.eu), an online platform where the latest thinking on ecosystem services, natural capital and nature-based solutions is brought together.
The Integrated Assessment and Valuation Framework for ecosystem services provides guidance on how to select, combine and apply bio-physical, monetary and socio-cultural assessment and valuation methods into hybrid approaches that address policy purposes.
Deliberative valuation is an interactive valuation method, which brings different actors (policy-makers, stakeholders and/or citizens) to form value judgements (e.g. preferences for ecosystem services) in an open dialogue with each other. The main advantage of deliberative valuation is that unlike survey-based instruments, it allows consideration of ethical beliefs, moral commitments and social norms beyond individual and collective utility.
The toolkit is intended to support government ministries, project managers, regional and district officers, and storekeepers in planning a safe disposal programme for obsolete pesticides.
The system provided in the toolkit should enable countries to use local resources and to be as self-reliant as possible. The set of tools should help relatively inexperienced users to draw the same conclusions as would be drawn by specialists with many years of experience in obsolete pesticide projects.
These guidelines provide information and advice on all aspects of pesticide application with ground-based field crop sprayers, including: operator training, selection of pesticides and spray equipment, management of exposure, and safe practice in using, storing, transporting and disposing of pesticides and in maintaining and cleaning application equipment.
These guidelines set out basic principles for pesticide registration, such as having clear requirements and criteria, maintaining transparency but protecting the applicant’s intellectual property rights, evaluating hazards and precautions needed, assessing risks and benefits based on the local situation, and providing for post-registration monitoring and re-evaluation of risks to consider new information.
The guidelines provide the definition of highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) given in the International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management, as well as the eight criteria developed by the FAO-WHO JMPM for determining if a pesticide is highly hazardous. The guidelines also discuss the international context for action on HHPs, which includes the Stockholm and Rotterdam Conventions and the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) resolution that calls for concerted action to address HHPs.