The HYDRUS computer software packages simulate the one-, two- or three- dimensional movement of water, heat and multiple solutes in variably saturated media. The program numerically solves the Richards' equation for saturated-unsaturated water flow and Fickian-based advection dispersion equations for heat and solute transport. The Flow equation incorporates a sink term to account for water uptake by plant roots. The Heat transport equation considers conduction as well as convection with flowing water.
Assessment and evaluation
Tools in this family synthesise and assess knowledge relative to status, function, and drivers of nature, nature’s contributions to people, human well-being, and the connections between these. These include scenarios, management effectiveness evaluations, quantitative modelling, cost–benefit analysis, and trade-off analysis.
RUSLE helps assess land degradation through soil related measures. RUSLE estimates long-term annual soil loss due to erosion across different land uses and land management activities.
The RUSLE equation, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, estimates average annual soil erosion as follows: A = R*K*L*S*C*P
A = average annual soil loss
R = rainfall erosivity
K = soil erodibility
L = slope length
S = slope
C = cropping
P = conservation practice
The Ecosystem Service Assessment Support Tool (ESAST) has been designed to provide guidance to users who are new to ecosystem services and need assistance in designing an effective assessment process. It can also assist experienced users in providing detailed information about different concepts, methodologies and links to case study information, or give structured access to information maintained within and outside of Oppla (www.oppla.eu), an online platform where the latest thinking on ecosystem services, natural capital and nature-based solutions is brought together.
The Integrated Assessment and Valuation Framework for ecosystem services provides guidance on how to select, combine and apply bio-physical, monetary and socio-cultural assessment and valuation methods into hybrid approaches that address policy purposes.
Deliberative valuation is an interactive valuation method, which brings different actors (policy-makers, stakeholders and/or citizens) to form value judgements (e.g. preferences for ecosystem services) in an open dialogue with each other. The main advantage of deliberative valuation is that unlike survey-based instruments, it allows consideration of ethical beliefs, moral commitments and social norms beyond individual and collective utility.
Bayesialab 7.0 is a powerful desktop application with a highly sophisticated graphical user interface based on Bayesian networks mathematical formalism that can simultaneously represent a multitude of probabilistic relationships between variables in a system. It provides a comprehensive 'lab' environment for machine learning, knowledge modeling, dianosis, analysis, simulation, and optimization.
In light of the ongoing loss of biodiversity, there is a need to make the most of the huge amount of knowledge available on biodiversity and ecosystem services to help decision-makers at all scales make better decisions for our environment. This is the main motivation behind the H2020 funded EKLIPSE project (http://www.eklipse-mechanism.eu/home).
The Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-based Assessment (TESSA) provides accessible guidance on low-cost methods for how to evaluate the benefits people receive from nature at particular sites in order to generate information that can be used to influence decision making.
The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) is a cornerstone programme to the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna working group of the Arctic council. The CBMP is an international network of scientists, government agencies, Indigenous organizations and conservation groups working together to harmonize and integrate efforts to monitor the Arctic's living resources.
The CBMP focuses its efforts on five key program areas:
ECOPLAN-SE is a QGIS plugin for evaluating ecosystem services supply. It is able to calculate and evaluate quantitatively the effects of spatial scenarios on 18 different ecosystem services: 4 producing, 8 regulating, 3 supporting and 3 cultural services. The user can define and then evaluate the scenarios using quantitative models. The tool presents the results of the calculations in several, understandable ways.