Tools in this family synthesise and assess knowledge relative to status, function, and drivers of nature, nature’s contributions to people, human well-being, and the connections between these. These include scenarios, management effectiveness evaluations, quantitative modelling, cost–benefit analysis, and trade-off analysis.

A review of coastal management approaches to support the integration of ecological and human community planning for climate change

This review describes the use of natural infrastructure in tidal marsh, beach and barrier island, mangrove, and biogenic reef habitats along the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts of the United States. The term natural infrastructure refers to planned networks of natural lands that conserve or enhance ecosystem values and services (see Ozment et al., 2015). The benefits, opportunities, and challenges of implementing natural infrastructure in a coastal zone are compared to those of grey and hybrid infrastructure.

DNDC DeNitrification-DeComposition

DNDC is a computer simulation model of carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry in agro-ecosystems. The model can be used for predicting crop growth, soil temperature and moisture, carbon dynamics, nitrogen leaching, and trace gases emissions. 

The DNDC model can assess the soil matter turnover, which can indirectly indicate the state of degradation. It is a point-scale model and can be extrapolated to large spatial extents using remote sensing and GIS approaches.


The HYDRUS computer software packages simulate the one-, two- or three- dimensional movement of water, heat and multiple solutes in variably saturated media. The program numerically solves the Richards' equation for saturated-unsaturated water flow and Fickian-based advection dispersion equations for heat and solute transport. The Flow equation incorporates a sink term to account for water uptake by plant roots. The Heat transport equation considers conduction as well as convection with flowing water.

Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE)

RUSLE helps assess land degradation through soil related measures. RUSLE estimates long-term annual soil loss due to erosion across different land uses and land management activities.

The RUSLE equation, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, estimates average annual soil erosion as follows: A = R*K*L*S*C*P

A = average annual soil loss

R = rainfall erosivity

K = soil erodibility

L = slope length

S = slope

C = cropping

P = conservation practice

Ecosystem Service Assessment Support Tool

The Ecosystem Service Assessment Support Tool (ESAST) has been designed to provide guidance to users who are new to ecosystem services and need assistance in designing an effective assessment process. It can also assist experienced users in providing detailed information about different concepts, methodologies and links to case study information, or give structured access to information maintained within and outside of Oppla (, an online platform where the latest thinking on ecosystem services, natural capital and nature-based solutions is brought together.

Deliberative Valuation

Deliberative valuation is an interactive valuation method, which brings different actors (policy-makers, stakeholders and/or citizens) to form value judgements (e.g. preferences for ecosystem services) in an open dialogue with each other. The main advantage of deliberative valuation is that unlike survey-based instruments, it allows consideration of ethical beliefs, moral commitments and social norms beyond individual and collective utility.

Bayesialab 7.0 Professional Edition

Bayesialab 7.0 is a powerful desktop application with a highly sophisticated graphical user interface based on Bayesian networks mathematical formalism that can simultaneously represent a multitude of probabilistic relationships between variables in a system. It provides a comprehensive 'lab' environment for machine learning, knowledge modeling, dianosis, analysis, simulation, and optimization.

EKLIPSE - Knowledge and Learning Mechanism on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

In light of the ongoing loss of biodiversity, there is a need to make the most of the huge amount of knowledge available on biodiversity and ecosystem services to help decision-makers at all scales make better decisions for our environment. This is the main motivation behind the H2020 funded EKLIPSE project (