Tools in this family synthesise and assess knowledge relative to status, function, and drivers of nature, nature’s contributions to people, human well-being, and the connections between these. These include scenarios, management effectiveness evaluations, quantitative modelling, cost–benefit analysis, and trade-off analysis.

Ecosystem resilience to disruptions linked to global climate change: An adaptive approach to federal land management

This article summarizes the potential impacts of climate change on natural lands and resources to inform ten recommendations on promoting ecosystem resilience through adaptive management. The author argues that existing laws and policies are not sufficient to adequately address the risk of climate change, and land management statues should be altered to better reflect the current state of the environment.

A physical framework for evaluating net effects of wet meadow restoration on late-summer streamflow

This resource evaluates the efficacy of wet meadow restoration techniques in supporting the recovery of the unique yet fragile montane ecosystems and ensuring the continuation of their valuable aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem services. The physically-based conceptual groundwater model introduced in this resource informs managers of the possible consequences of certain restoration decisions and allows them to make choices that maximize benefits.

Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool (IBAT)

IBAT offers a ‘one-stop shop’ data search service for those seeking authoritative global biodiversity information. Described by our users as “a must for any project on biodiversity conservation”, IBAT provides fast, easy, and integrated acces to three of the world’s most authoritative global biodiversity datasets: the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas and the World Database on Protected Areas.

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting

The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) provides a framework for measuring the links between the environment and economy.

The SEEA consists of two parts. The SEEA Central Framework (SEEA CF) was adopted by the UN Statistical Commission as the first international standard for environmental-economic accounting in 2012. The Central Framework looks at individual environmental assets, such as water, forests and fisheries resources, and how they are extracted from the environment, used within the economy, and returned to the environment as air, water, and waste.

A linked land-sea modeling framework to inform ridge-to-reef management in high oceanic islands

This linked land-sea modeling framework helps assess the relative influence of terrestrial and marine drivers on coral reef communities. It links land cover/use to coral reefs through analyzing nutrient-enriched groundwater flux. Based on climate, groundwater recharge and recharge nutrient concentration data, groundwater flow and nutrient flux discharging at the coast are modeled. The model was developed for two ahupua’a, or traditional ridge-to-reef management systems, in Hawaii.

A Safe Operating Space for inland recreational fisheries

This publication applies the “Safe Operating Space” or SOS framework to inland recreational fisheries management by determining the parameters under which harvest, habitat, predation, catchability, and other qualities of a fishery are sustainable. The publication examines these key qualities and the interactions between them, and offers suggestions for managers to adjust the framework and make decisions appropriate to the unique situation of each fishery.

A Morphometric Approach for Stocking Walleye Fingerlings in Lakes Invaded by Rainbow Smelt

The stocking tool introduced in this management brief calculates the most appropriate size to stock Walleye fingerlings in lakes invaded by predatory Rainbow Smelt. The publication also suggests basic strategies for assessing the size structure of Rainbow Smelt populations, and increasing the effectiveness of Walleye stocking efforts.

Coordination of Information on the Environment (CORINE) Land Cover

Coordination of Information on the Environment (CORINE) Land Cover provides information on the biophysical characteristics of European land cover. The CORINE Land Cover project was established in the 1980s to standardise data collection on the state of land in Europe and to support environmental policy, and has become the primary spatial data source on land for the European Economic Area. Images are acquired by earth observation satellites. It is currently a product of the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service. Copernicus is the earth observation programme of the European Union.


The Rothamsted carbon model (RothC) is a model to assess soil matter turnover, which can indirectly indicate the state of degradation. It is a point-scale model and can be extrapolated to large spatial extents using remote sensing and GIS approaches. RothC is a model for the turnover of organic carbon in topsoil that allows for the effects of soil type, temperature, soil moisture and plant cover.


CENTURY is a general model of plant-soil nutrient cycling which has been used to simulate carbon and nutrient dynamics for different types of ecosystems. It can be used to assess soil matter turnover, which can indicate the state of degradation. CENTURY is composed of a soil organic matter/decomposition submodel, a water budget model, a grassland/crop submodel, a forest production submodel, and management and events scheduling functions. It computes the flow of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur through the model's compartments.