These instruments emphasize the relationship between ecosystems and sociocultural dynamics for the management of natural and cultural resources. While linked to them, social instruments go beyond economic and financial instruments. Some examples of these interventions include information-related instruments; corporate social responsibility; and enhancement of collective action.

Understanding the spatial relationships that link social communities to their ecosystems and biophysical landscapes

The aim of this resource is contributing a theoretical and methodological approach to the cultural and social valuation method section of the online catalogue. The analysis of socio-spatial relationships is suggested as a suitable conceptual basis to fully recognise the voices and values of a wider diversity of people. The resource follows an anthropological perspective in accordance with the work of Henri Lefebvre (in the volume The Production of Space [1991]).

Locally Managed Marine Area

A Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA) is an area of nearshore waters and its associated coastal and marine resources that is largely or wholly managed at a local level by the coastal communities, land-owning groups, partner organizations, and/or collaborative government representatives who reside or are based in the immediate area.

Eco-labelling: certification schemes

Labelling is a means for providing accurate, understandable, verifialble and reliable information to consumers to allow those who wish, to adjust their purchasing behaviour and diet choices to a more sustainable level. Voluntary and compulsory labelling schemes are increasingly used to communicate on nutritional matters, health and safety, country of origin, environment, energy, ingredients list etc.