Environmental Public Interest Litigation (EPIL) in China permits qualified environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to file litigation to protect the public interest in safeguarding the environment and natural resources from pollution and ecological destruction. EPIL is a non-profit activity which not only plays the relief role to harm which has already occurred in the environment but also plays a role in the prevention and avoidance of future harm or damage to the environment.
Rights-based instruments and customary norms
The instruments comprise international and national human rights agreements, whether binding or non-binding, created to fit within socio-ecological systems. They comprise the strengthening of collective rights, customary norms and institutions of indigenous peoples and local communities, with the aim to promote adaptive governance and the fair management of natural resources.
A Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA) is an area of nearshore waters and its associated coastal and marine resources that is largely or wholly managed at a local level by the coastal communities, land-owning groups, partner organizations, and/or collaborative government representatives who reside or are based in the immediate area.