Depending on the context, a combination of methods and synergies between them may be more appropriate than one single approach. This necessitates an ability to engage in synthesis and reflective learning, avoiding paralysis in the face of pluralism as well as a genuine interdisciplinary collaboration from across the physical, social, and health sciences.

Transparent participatory processes may be used to leverage power relations over diverse values, negotiate, and bridge upon incommensurable values. It is acknowledged though that deliberative processes, on their own, may not always lead to a shared understanding or consensus when an irreducible plurality of standpoints exists. In this case integrated modelling approaches, multi-criteria analysis as well as deliberative and narrative approaches can be helpful to overcome the challenge.

Integrated modelling Multi-criteria analysis Deliberative valuation Narrative approaches

In most cases, assessments face the difficulty that for some types of foci of value, or at some relevant scales, valuation studies do not exist. In such cases, methods of upscaling are needed. When upscaling values to larger scales in space, time and social organisation the value of ecosystem services over an entire region or biome cannot be found simply by adding up estimated values from smaller ecosystem sites. For this purpose, methods within and outside economics can be used. They can allow understanding values at broader scales using robust techniques.

In the context of multiple values, if we are applying upscaling to larger geographical scales, this is often interrelated with values expressed at different scales of social organization (scales of social organization and spatial scales interfere with each other).