Integrated modelling reflects a scientific worldview. State-of-the-art integrated models are set up in multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary efforts. Integrated modelling studies for valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services simulate changes in biophysical aspects of ecosystems, followed by the application of one or more valuation techniques. A challenge for integrated analysis of socioeconomic systems is keeping coherence in their multidimensional representation. 

A major advantage of integrated models is that they can cope with different scales. The ecosystem services oriented integrated modelling approaches range from non-spatial to spatially explicit and from static to dynamic incarnations.

The purpose is most often decision support, with different degrees of social engagement. Some models are built for stakeholders, while others are co-developed with stakeholders. Integrated models make use of historic data or looser forms of knowledge embodied in stakeholder representation.

Examples of tools