In the context of IPBES, the summary terms to describe the state of knowledge are the following:

  • Well established (Certainty term (q.v.)): comprehensive meta-analysis or other synthesis or multiple independent studies that agree.
  • Established but incomplete (Certainty term (q.v.)): general agreement although only a limited number of studies exist but no comprehensive synthesis and, or the studies that exist imprecisely address the question.
  • Unresolved (Certainty term (q.v.)): ¬†multiple independent studies exist but conclusions do not agree.
  • Inconclusive (Certainty term (q.v.)): limited evidence, recognising major knowledge gaps.

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