where ‘scape is shorthand for ‘land-, freshwater- and sea-scape’, is a contiguous area defined by major geomorphological (e.g. major watersheds, geological systems and major biomes) and/or oceanographic processes (major current regimes, biogeochemical processes). Scale may vary with the application. A ‘scape may include a mosaic of habitats across all conditions of nature from intact in ‘wild spaces’, through modified and altered in ‘shared spaces’ where humans have a significant impact on the biota and may alter function considerably, to ‘anthromes’ or fully transformed agricultural and urban areas where the coverage of natural habitats is very low or even zero.
|IPBES-IPCC co-sponsored workshop on biodiversity and climate change||IPBES, 2019; Locke et al., 2019; Ellis et al., 2010|