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grabbing (of wild species and spaces)

Definition Source References

Actions, policies or initiatives by which use and access rights of resources and spaces are transferred and re-allocated from collective entity to private or public entity, leading to IPLC dispossession, marginalization and exclusion and, consequently, the unsustainability of use system (Acheson, 2015; Fairhead et al., 2012; National Research Council & National Research Council (U.S.), 2002). These processes of control (whether through ownership, lease, concession, contracts, quotas, or general power) as well as commons enclosure, have two main purposes: on the one hand, productivist exploitation (speculation, extraction, land stewardship, food sovereignty); on the other hand, conservation (e.g. Protected Areas, no-take’ conservation areas, restoration of endangered habitat, resource control or nature commodification, Biodiversity offsets, REDD+, etc.), qualified either green for land conservation (Benabou, 2014), or blue for ocean conservation (Bennett et al., 2020; Clark Howard, 2018; Cormier- Salem & Bassett, 2007). Moreover, the commons, or common pool resources, cover a large set of assets, from wild species to habitats and institutions, either terrestrial and referred as large-scale land acquisition (Baker-Smith & Attila, 2016) and land grabbing, or aquatic, oceanic and coastal and referred as water (Duvail et al., 2012) or ocean grabbing.

Sustainable use assessment Artaud & Surrallés, 2017; Bennett et al., 2020