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The sum of all the ecosystems of the world. It is both the collection of organisms living on the Earth and the space that they occupy on part of the Earth's crust (the lithosphere), in the oceans (the hydrosphere) and in the atmosphere. The biosphere is all the planet's ecosystems.

Scenarios and models assessment, Asia-Pacific assessment, Sustainable use assessment, Europe and Central Asia assessment, Land degradation and restoration assessment, Americas assessment Diaz et al. 2015. The IPBES Conceptual Framework — Connecting Nature and People. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 14: 1-16. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2014.11.002