By 2020, all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ is the most comprehensive, objective database of the global conservation status of species. It evaluates the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. The IUCN aims to have each species re-evaluated in a peer reviewed manner every five years if possible, or at least every ten years. It provides information about range, population size, habitat and ecology, use, trade, threats, and conservation actions.

Biodiversity Indicators Partnership (BIP)

The Biodiversity Indicators Partnership (BIP) is a global initiative to promote and coordinate the development and delivery of biodiversity indicators for use by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and other biodiversity-related conventions, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and national and regional agencies.

Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST)

A suite of open-source software models to map and value ecosystem services. These are GIS-based spatial models that quantitatively analyse spatial changes in ecosystem services. They can be used to assess alternative management options by measuring the trade-offs.

Using maps as information sources and producing maps as outputs, they return results in either biophysical or economic terms. The models are based on production functions that define how changes in an ecosystem’s structure and function affects the flows and values of ecosystem services across a land- or a seascape.