By 2020, all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits.

A review of coastal management approaches to support the integration of ecological and human community planning for climate change

This review describes the use of natural infrastructure in tidal marsh, beach and barrier island, mangrove, and biogenic reef habitats along the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts of the United States. The term natural infrastructure refers to planned networks of natural lands that conserve or enhance ecosystem values and services (see Ozment et al., 2015). The benefits, opportunities, and challenges of implementing natural infrastructure in a coastal zone are compared to those of grey and hybrid infrastructure.

Multi-scale integrated models of ecosystem services (MIMES)

MIMES is an ecosystem-based management tool. It integrates georeferenced datasets, with diverse information sources on human and natural systems to create systems models. These systems models assess the value of ecosystem services at different spatial levels under different future scenarios. These are bespoke models for particular cases.

The MIMES approach has been applied in New Zealand and Massachusetts. It is also under development for use by the Ministry of Fisheries in Cambodia in managing the Tonle Sap Lake.