By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels.

A linked land-sea modeling framework to inform ridge-to-reef management in high oceanic islands

This linked land-sea modeling framework helps assess the relative influence of terrestrial and marine drivers on coral reef communities. It links land cover/use to coral reefs through analyzing nutrient-enriched groundwater flux. Based on climate, groundwater recharge and recharge nutrient concentration data, groundwater flow and nutrient flux discharging at the coast are modeled. The model was developed for two ahupua’a, or traditional ridge-to-reef management systems, in Hawaii.