By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.

Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool (IBAT)

IBAT offers a ‘one-stop shop’ data search service for those seeking authoritative global biodiversity information. Described by our users as “a must for any project on biodiversity conservation”, IBAT provides fast, easy, and integrated acces to three of the world’s most authoritative global biodiversity datasets: the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas and the World Database on Protected Areas.

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting

The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) provides a framework for measuring the links between the environment and economy.

The SEEA consists of two parts. The SEEA Central Framework (SEEA CF) was adopted by the UN Statistical Commission as the first international standard for environmental-economic accounting in 2012. The Central Framework looks at individual environmental assets, such as water, forests and fisheries resources, and how they are extracted from the environment, used within the economy, and returned to the environment as air, water, and waste.

A linked land-sea modeling framework to inform ridge-to-reef management in high oceanic islands

This linked land-sea modeling framework helps assess the relative influence of terrestrial and marine drivers on coral reef communities. It links land cover/use to coral reefs through analyzing nutrient-enriched groundwater flux. Based on climate, groundwater recharge and recharge nutrient concentration data, groundwater flow and nutrient flux discharging at the coast are modeled. The model was developed for two ahupua’a, or traditional ridge-to-reef management systems, in Hawaii.

A review of coastal management approaches to support the integration of ecological and human community planning for climate change

This review describes the use of natural infrastructure in tidal marsh, beach and barrier island, mangrove, and biogenic reef habitats along the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts of the United States. The term natural infrastructure refers to planned networks of natural lands that conserve or enhance ecosystem values and services (see Ozment et al., 2015). The benefits, opportunities, and challenges of implementing natural infrastructure in a coastal zone are compared to those of grey and hybrid infrastructure.

Multi-scale integrated models of ecosystem services (MIMES)

MIMES is an ecosystem-based management tool. It integrates georeferenced datasets, with diverse information sources on human and natural systems to create systems models. These systems models assess the value of ecosystem services at different spatial levels under different future scenarios. These are bespoke models for particular cases.

The MIMES approach has been applied in New Zealand and Massachusetts. It is also under development for use by the Ministry of Fisheries in Cambodia in managing the Tonle Sap Lake.